Placa de Aleación de Níquel
La Aleación 400 (UNS N04400) es una aleación dúctil de níquel – cobre con resistencia a una variedad de condiciones corrosivas. La aleación se especifica más frecuentemente en ambientes que fluctúan desde levemente oxidantes hasta neutrales y en condiciones moderadamente reductoras. Un área adicional de aplicación de este material es en ambientes marinos y otras soluciones de cloruro no oxidantes.
Al igual que el níquel comercialmente puro, la Aleación 400 tiene una baja resistencia en su condición revenida. Por esta razón, Sandmeyer Steel Company ofrece también A400 rolada.
|1 1/4"||1 1/2"||1 3/4"||2"||2 1/2"||3"|
Alloy 400 (UNS N04400) is a nickel-copper alloy with excellent resistance to a wide range of corrosive environments. It is resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking and has high strength and toughness over a wide range of temperatures.
The alloy is used extensively in many corrosive applications especially in the marine and chemical processing industries. Alloy 400 is readily fabricated by conventional processing operations.
Alloy 400AR is produced in the as-rolled condition to meet higher strength requirements
- Chemical Processing Equipment – in fluorine, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen fluoride, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, neutral and alkaline salt solutions, caustic alkalies, non-oxidizing halides and dry chlorine service.
- Marine Components – shipbuilding, valves, pumps, shafts and in sea and brackish water
- Oil and Gas Production – splash-zones for offshore structures and sour gas applications
- Ore Processing – uranium refining and separation in the production of nuclear fuels
- Petroleum Refining – alkylation units, crude petroleum stills, piping and storage tanks
- Power Generation – feed-water heaters and steam generators
- Water Treatment – brine heaters and evaporators in seawater desalination plants
Weight % (all values are maximum unless a range is otherwise indicated)
|Nickel (plus Cobalt)||63.0 min.-70.0 max.||Iron||2.50|
|Copper||28.0 min.-34.0 max.||Sulfur||0.024|
Specific Heat0.102 BTU/lb-°F (68°F)
427 J/kg-°K (20°C)
Modulus of Elasticity26.4 x 103 ksi (68°F)
182 GPa (20°C)
Thermal Conductivity 200°F (100°C)150 BTU/hr/ft2/ft/°F (68°F)
22.0 W/m-°K (20°C)
Melting Range2370 – 2460°F
1300 – 1350°C
Electrical Resistivity307 Microhm-in at 70°C
0.511 Microhm-cm at 21°C
Mean Linear Expansion
|Temperature||Mean Linear Expansiona|
|°F||°C||in/in/°F x 10-6||um/m•°C|
(a) annealed material, (b) extrapolated
Nominal Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Alloy 400 and 400AR
|FORM AND CONDITION||Yield Strength
|Tensile Strength||Elongation, %||Hardness|
Alloy 400 is a very versatile corrosion resistant material. It exhibits resistance to corrosion in many reducing environments, and it is generally more resistant than higher copper alloys to oxidizing media. Alloy 400 is one of the few materials that will withstand contact with fluorine, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen fluoride or their derivatives. The alloy has been found to offer exceptional resistance to hydrofluoric acid in all concentrations up to the boiling point. Alloy 400 also resists sulfuric and hydrochloric acids under reducing conditions. It has outstanding resistance to neutral and alkaline salts and has been utilized for many years as a material of construction for salt plants.
Alloy 400 is one of the most widely used materials for marine applications, shipbuilding and seawater desalination plants. The alloy exhibits very low rates of corrosion in flowing sea or brackish water. However, under stagnant conditions, the alloy can encounter crevice and pitting corrosion. Alloy 400 resists stress corrosion cracking and pitting in most fresh and industrial water applications.
Plant corrosion tests in the storage of commercial 60-65% hydrofluoric acida
|MATERIAL||Corrosion Rate, mpy (mm/a)|
|Alloy 400||22 (0.56)|
|Nickel 200||>200 (>5.08)b|
|Alloy 600||150 (3.81)|
|AISI 304 Stainless Steel||>210 (>5.33)b|
|AISI 316 Stainless Steel||>190 (>4.83)b|
|Mild Steel||>170 (4.32)|
(a) Acid contains 1.5-2.5% fluosilicic acid, 0.3-1.25% sulfuric acid, and 0.01-0.03% iron. Test specimens immersed in solution in storage tank. Temperature, 60-80°F (15-27°C); duration of test, 28 days.
(b) Specimen completely destroyed during test.
Resistance of Nickel Alloys to Impingement Attack by Seawater at 150 ft/sec (45.7 m/s)
Alloy 400 is readily fabricated by conventional processing operations.
Alloy 400 is a relatively soft material that is receptive to hot forming into almost any shape. The range of hot forming temperatures is 1200 - 2150°F (649 - 1177°C). For heavy reductions the recommended temperature range is 1700 – 2150°F (927 – 1177°C). Light reductions are possible with temperatures as low as 1200°F (649°C). Working at lower temperatures will result in higher mechanical properties and smaller grain size.
Alloy 400 is readily cold worked by virtually all cold fabrication methods. Cold working should be performed on annealed material. The alloy has a somewhat higher work hardening rate than carbon steel, but not as high as 304 stainless steel.
Alloy 400 can be machined at standard rates with conventional machine tools. Surface cutting speeds should be low compared to those used for carbon steel due to the alloy’s high work-hardening rate.
Alloy 400 can be welded to itself or dissimilar metals by utilizing conventional welding processes. These include conventional or hot wire GTAW (TIG), plasma arc, GMAW (MIG/MAG) and SMAW (MMA). The choice of welding product is dependent upon the materials being welded and the environment in which it occurs.
NOTE: The information and data in this product data sheet are accurate to the best of our knowledge and belief, but are intended for informational purposes only, and may be revised at any time without notice. Applications suggested for the materials are described only to help readers make their own evaluations and decisions, and are neither guarantees nor to be construed as express or implied warranties of suitability for these or other applications.