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300 Series Austenitic Stainless Steel

   

     

Alloy 316/316L
Sandmeyer Steel Company stocks the largest single-site stainless steel plate inventory in North America with thicknesses from 3/16" through 6-1/2" in 1/8" increments. Alloy 316/316L stainless steel plate is also available as E-Z Drill for improved machinability.

Alloys 316 (UNS S31600) and 316L (UNS S31603) are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels, which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels such as Alloy 304. These alloys also offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture, and tensile strength at elevated temperatures. In addition to excellent corrosion resistance and strength properties, the Alloys 316 and 316L Cr-Ni-Mo alloys also provide excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.


Specification Sheet: Alloy 316/316L
(UNS S31600, S31603) W. Nr. 1.4401, 1.4404
An Austenitic Stainless Steel Containing Molybdenum Which is More Corrosion Resistant than the Conventional 304/304L Stainless Steel

General Properties
Standards
Applications
Chemical Analysis
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Corrosion Resistance
Fabrication Data

 



General Properties
Alloy 316/316L (UNS S31600/S31603) is a chromium-nickelmolybdenum austenitic stainless steel developed to provide improved corrosion resistance to Alloy 304/304L in moderately corrosive environments. It is often utilized in process streams containing chlorides or halides. The addition of molybdenum improves general corrosion and chloride pitting resistance. It also provides higher creep, stress-to-rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperatures.

It is common practice for 316L to be dual certified as 316 and 316L. The low carbon chemistry of 316L combined with an addition of nitrogen enables 316L to meet the mechanical properties of 316.

Alloy 316/316L resists atmospheric corrosion, as well as, moderately oxidizing and reducing environments. It also resists corrosion in polluted marine atmospheres. The alloy has excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion in the as-welded condition. Alloy 316/316L has excellent strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures.

Alloy 316/316L is non-magnetic in the annealed condition, but can become slightly magnetic as a result of cold working or welding. It can be easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.

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Standards
ASTM .......... A 240
ASME............SA 240
AMS..............5524/5507
QQ-S..............766

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Applications

  • Chemical and Petrochemical Processing — pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping systems, flanges, fittings, valves and pumps
  • Food and Beverage Processing
  • Marine
  • Medical
  • Petroleum Refining
  • Pharmaceutical Processing
  • Power Generation — nuclear
  • Pulp and Paper
  • Textiles
  • Water Treatment

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Chemical Analysis

316/316L Chemical Analysis

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Physical Properties

Density
0.285 lbs/in3
7.90 g/cm3
  Specific Heat
0.11 BTU/lb-°F (32 – 212°F)
450 J/kg-°K (0 – 100°C)


Modulus of Elasticity

29.0 x 106 psi
200 GPa

 
Thermal Conductivity 212°F (100°C)
10.1 BTU/hr/ft2/ft/°F
14.6 W/m-°K

Melting Range

2450 – 2630°F
1390 – 1440°C

 
Electrical Resistivity

29.1 Microhm-in at 68°C
74 Microhm-cm at 20°C

316/316L Mean Coefficient

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Mechanical Properties

316/316L mechanical properties

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Corrosion Resistance
In most applications Alloy 316/316L has superior corrosion resistance to Alloy 304/304L. Process environments that do not corrode Alloy 304/304L will not attack this grade. One exception, however, is in highly oxidizing acids such as nitric acid where stainless steels containing molybdenum are less resistant. Alloy 316/316L performs well in sulfur containing service such as that encountered in the pulp and paper industry. The alloy can be used in high concentrations at temperatures up to 120°F (38°C).

Alloy 316/316L also has good resistance to pitting in phosphoric and acetic acid. It performs well in boiling 20% phosphoric acid. The alloy can also be used in the food and pharmaceutical process industries where it is utilized to handle hot organic and fatty acids in an effort to minimize product contamination.

Alloy 316/316L performs well in fresh water service even with high levels of chlorides. The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion in marine environments under atmospheric conditions.

The higher molybdenum content of Alloy 316/316L assures it will have superior pitting resistance to Alloy 304/304L in applications involving chloride solutions, particularly in an oxidizing environment.

In most instances, the corrosion resistance of Alloys 316 and 316L will be roughly equal in most corrosive environments. However, in environments that are sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones Alloy 316L should be used because of its low carbon content.

316/316L Corrosion Resistance

316/316L Corrosion Resistance

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Fabrication Data
Alloy 316/316L can be easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.

Hot Forming
Working temperatures of 1700 – 2200°F (927 – 1204°C) are recommended for
most hot working processes. For maximum corrosion resistance, the material
should be annealed at 1900°F (1038°C) minimum and water quenched or
rapidly cooled by other means after hot working.

Cold Forming
The alloy is quite ductile and forms easily. Cold working operations will
increase the strength and hardness of the alloy and might leave it slightly
magnetic.

Welding
Alloy 316/316L can be readily welded by most standard processes. A post
weld heat treatment is not necessary.

Machining
Alloy 316/316L is subject to work hardening during deformation and is
subject to chip breaking. The best machining results are achieved with slower
speeds, heavier feeds, excellent lubrication, sharp tooling and powerful rigid
equipment.

316/316L Fabrication Data

NOTE
The information and data in this product data sheet are accurate to the best of our knowledge and belief, but are intended for informational purposes only, and may be revised at any time without notice. Applications suggested for the materials are described only to help readers make their own evaluations and decisions, and are neither guarantees nor to be construed as express or implied warranties of suitability for these or other applications.

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