Stainless Steel Plate

Sandmeyer Steel Company stocks the largest single-site stainless steel plate inventory in North America with thicknesses from 3/16" through 6-1/2" in 1/8" increments. Alloy 316/316L stainless steel plate is also available as E-Z Drill for improved machinability.

Available thicknesses for Alloy 316/316L:

3/16" 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" 7/16" 1/2" 9/16" 5/8" 3/4" 7/8" 1" 1 1/8"
4.8mm 6.3mm 7.9mm 9.5mm 11.1mm 12.7mm 14.3mm 15.9mm 19mm 22.2mm 25.4mm 28.6mm
 
1 1/4" 1 3/8" 1 1/2" 1 5/8" 1 3/4" 2" 2 1/4" 2 1/2" 2 3/4" 3" 3 1/4" 3 1/2"
31.8mm 34.9mm 38.1mm 41.3mm 44.5mm 50.8mm 57.2mm 63.5mm 69.9mm 76.2mm 82.6mm 88.9mm
 
3 3/4" 4" 4 1/4" 4 1/2" 4 3/4" 5" 5 1/4" 5 1/2" 5 3/4" 6"
95.3mm 101.6mm 108mm 114.3mm 120.7mm 127mm 133.4mm 139.7mm 146.1mm 152.4mm

Alloys 316 (UNS S31600) and 316L (UNS S31603) are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels, which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels such as Alloy 304. These alloys also offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture, and tensile strength at elevated temperatures. In addition to excellent corrosion resistance and strength properties, the Alloys 316 and 316L Cr-Ni-Mo alloys also provide excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.

Specification Sheet Overview

for Alloy 316/316L (UNS S31600, S31603)
W. Nr. 1.4401, 1.4404:

An Austenitic Stainless Steel Containing Molybdenum Which is More Corrosion Resistant than the Conventional 304/304L Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel Plate

General Properties

Alloy 316/316L (UNS S31600/S31603) is a chromium-nickelmolybdenum austenitic stainless steel developed to provide improved corrosion resistance to Alloy 304/304L in moderately corrosive environments. It is often utilized in process streams containing chlorides or halides. The addition of molybdenum improves general corrosion and chloride pitting resistance. It also provides higher creep, stress-to-rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperatures.

It is common practice for 316L to be dual certified as 316 and 316L. The low carbon chemistry of 316L combined with an addition of nitrogen enables 316L to meet the mechanical properties of 316.

Alloy 316/316L resists atmospheric corrosion, as well as, moderately oxidizing and reducing environments. It also resists corrosion in polluted marine atmospheres. The alloy has excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion in the as-welded condition. Alloy 316/316L has excellent strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures.

Alloy 316/316L is non-magnetic in the annealed condition, but can become slightly magnetic as a result of cold working or welding. It can be easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.


Applications

  • Chemical and Petrochemical Processing — pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping systems, flanges, fittings, valves and pumps
  • Food and Beverage Processing
  • Marine
  • Medical
  • Petroleum Refining
  • Pharmaceutical Processing
  • Power Generation — nuclear
  • Pulp and Paper
  • Textiles
  • Water Treatment

Standards

ASTM........A 240
ASME........SA 240
AMS..........5524/5507
QQ-S........766

Corrosion Resistance

In most applications Alloy 316/316L has superior corrosion resistance to Alloy 304/304L. Process environments that do not corrode Alloy 304/304L will not attack this grade. One exception, however, is in highly oxidizing acids such as nitric acid where stainless steels containing molybdenum are less resistant. Alloy 316/316L performs well in sulfur containing service such as that encountered in the pulp and paper industry. The alloy can be used in high concentrations at temperatures up to 120°F (38°C).

Alloy 316/316L also has good resistance to pitting in phosphoric and acetic acid. It performs well in boiling 20% phosphoric acid. The alloy can also be used in the food and pharmaceutical process industries where it is utilized to handle hot organic and fatty acids in an effort to minimize product contamination.

Alloy 316/316L performs well in fresh water service even with high levels of chlorides. The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion in marine environments under atmospheric conditions.

The higher molybdenum content of Alloy 316/316L assures it will have superior pitting resistance to Alloy 304/304L in applications involving chloride solutions, particularly in an oxidizing environment.

In most instances, the corrosion resistance of Alloys 316 and 316L will be roughly equal in most corrosive environments. However, in environments that are sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones Alloy 316L should be used because of its low carbon content.

  Composition (Weight Percent)   CCT2 CPT3
ALLOY Cr Mo N PREN1 °F (°C) °F (°C)
Type 304 18.0 0.06 19.0 <27.5
(<-2.5)

Type 316 16.5 2.1 0.05 24.2 27.5
(-2.5)
59
(15.0)
Type 317 18.5 3.1 0.06 29.7 35.0
(1.7)
66
(18.9)
SSC-6MO 20.5 6.2 0.22 44.5 110
(43.0)
149
(65)

1Pitting Resistance Equivelant, including Nitrogen, PREN=Cr + 3.3Mo + 16N
2Critical Crevice Corrosion Temperature, CCCT, based on ASTM G-48B (6% FeCl3 for 72 hr, with crevices
3Critical Pitting Temperature, CPT based on ASTM G-48A (6% FeCl3 for 72 hr)

Lowest Temperature (°F) at Which the Corrosion Rate Exceeds 5mpy

CORROSION
ENVIRONMENT
Type
316L
Type
304
2205
(UNS S32205)
2507
0.2% Hydrochloric Acid >Boiling >Boiling >Boiling >Boiling
1% Hydrochloric Acid 86 86p 185 >Boiling
10% Sulfuric Acid 122 140 167
60% Sulfuric Acid <54 <59 <57
96% Sulfuric Acid 113 77 86
85% Phosphoric Acid 203 176 194 203
10% Nitric Acid >Boiling >Boiling >Boiling >Boiling
65% Niitric Acid 212 212 221 230
80% Acetic Acid >Boiling 212p >Boiling >Boiling
50% Formic Acid 104 ≤50 194 194
50% Sodium Hydroxide 194 185 194 230

83% Phosphoric Acid +
2% Hydrofluoric Acid

149 113 122 140
60% Nitric Acid +
2% Hydrocloric Acid
>140 >140 >140 >140
50% Acetic Acid +
50% Acetic Anhydride
248 >Boiling 212 230
1% Hydrochloric Acid +
0.3% Ferric Chloride
77p 68p 113ps 203ps
10% Sulfuric Acid +
2000ppm Cl- + N2
77 95 122
10% Sulfuric Acid +
2000ppm Cl- + SO2
<<59p <59 104
WPA1, High Cl- Content ≤50 <<50 113 203
WPA2, High F- Content ≤50 <<50 140 167

ps = pitting can occur
ps = pitting/crevice corrosion can occur

WPA P2O5 CL- F- H2SO4 Fe2O3 Al2O3 SiO2 CaO MgO
1 54 0.20 0.50 4.0 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.70
2 54 0.02 2.0 4.0 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.70

Chemical Analysis

Weight % (all values are maximum unless a range is otherwise indicated)

Element 316 316L
Chromium 16.0 min.-18.0 max. 16.0 min.-18.0 max.
Nickel 10.0 min.-14.0 max. 10.0 min.-14.0 max.
Molybdenum 2.00 min.-3.00 max. 2.00 min.-3.00 max.
Carbon 0.08 0.030
Manganese 2.00 2.00
Phosphorus 0.045 0.045
Sulfer 0.03 0.03
Silicon 0.75 0.75
Nitrogen 0.1 0.1
Iron Balance Balance

Physical Properties

Density

0.285 lbs/in3
7.90 g/cm3

Specific Heat

0.11 BTU/lb-°F (32 – 212°F)
450 J/kg-°K (0 – 100°C)

Modulus of Elasticity

29.0 x 106 psi
200 GPa

 

Thermal Conductivity 212°F (100°C)

10.1 BTU/hr/ft2/ft/°F
14.6 W/m-°K

Melting Range

2450 – 2630°F
1390 – 1440°C

Electrical Resistivity

29.1 Microhm-in at 68°C
74 Microhm-cm at 20°C
Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Temperature Range  
°F °C in/in °F cm/cm °C
68-212 20-100 9.2 x 10-6 16.6 x 10-6
68-932 20-500 10.1 x 10-6 18.2 x 10-6
68-1832 20-1000 10.8 x 10-6 19.4 x 10-6

Mechanical Properties

At Room Temperature

  ASTM
  Typical* Type 316 Type 316L
0.2% Offset Yield Strength, ksi 44 30 min. 25 min.
Ultimate Tensile Strength, ksi 85 75 min. 70 min.
Elongation in 2 inches, % 56 40 min. 40 min.
Reduction in Area, % 69
Hardness, Rockwell B 81 95 max. 95 max.

*0.375 inch plate


Fabrication Data

Alloy 316/316L can be easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.

Hot Forming

Working temperatures of 1700 – 2200°F (927 – 1204°C) are recommended for most hot working processes. For maximum corrosion resistance, the material should be annealed at 1900°F (1038°C) minimum and water quenched or rapidly cooled by other means after hot working.

Cold Forming

The alloy is quite ductile and forms easily. Cold working operations will increase the strength and hardness of the alloy and might leave it slightly magnetic.

Machining

Alloy 316/316L is subject to work hardening during deformation and is subject to chip breaking. The best machining results are achieved with slower speeds, heavier feeds, excellent lubrication, sharp tooling and powerful rigid equipment.

Operation Tool Lubrication CONDITIONS
      Depth-mm Depth-in Feed-mm/t Feed-in/t Speed-m/min Speed-ft/min
Turning High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 6 .23 0.5 .019 11-16 36.1-52.5
Turning High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 3 .11 0.4 .016 18-23 59.1-75.5
Turning High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 1 .04 0.2 .008 25-30 82-98.4
Turning Carbide Dry or Cutting Oil 6 .23 0.5 .019 70-80 229.7-262.5
Turning Carbide Dry or Cutting Oil 3 .11 0.4 .016 85-95 278.9-312.7
Turning Carbide Dry or Cutting Oil 1 .04 0.2 .008 100-110 328.1-360.9
      Depth of cut-mm Depth of cut-in Feed-mm/t Feed-in/t Speed-m/min Speed-ft/min
Cutting High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 1.5 .06 0.03-0.05 .0012-.0020 16-21 52.5-68.9
Cutting High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 3 .11 0.04-0.06 .0016-.0024 17-22 55.8-72.2
Cutting High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 6 .23 0.05-0.07 .0020-.0027 18-23 59-75.45
      Drill ø mm Drill ø in Feed-mm/t Feed-in/t Speed-m/min Speed-ft/min
Drilling High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 1.5 .06 0.02-0.03 .0008-.0012 10-14 32.8-45.9
Drilling High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 3 .11 0.05-0.06 .0020-.0024 12-16 39.3-52.5
Drilling High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 6 .23 0.08-0.09 .0031-.0035 12-16 39.3-52.5
Drilling High Speed Steel Cutting Oil 12 .48 0.09-0.10 .0035-.0039 12-16 39.3-52.5
          Feed-mm/t Feed-in/t Speed-m/min Speed-ft/min
Milling Profiling High Speed Steel Cutting Oil     0.05-0.10 .002-.004 10-20 32.8-65.6

Welding

Alloy 316/316L can be readily welded by most standard processes. A post
weld heat treatment is not necessary.

NOTE: The information and data in this product data sheet are accurate to the best of our knowledge and belief, but are intended for informational purposes only, and may be revised at any time without notice. Applications suggested for the materials are described only to help readers make their own evaluations and decisions, and are neither guarantees nor to be construed as express or implied warranties of suitability for these or other applications.

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